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[论坛活动] 文隐京江香遍华夏--戴铭故事里影响中国的镇江人(中英双语)

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发表于 2018-4-21 22:46 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Alfred8 于 2018-4-25 20:16 编辑

                                                                                                       文隐京江香遍华夏
                                       戴铭故事里影响中国的镇江人
                                            (中英双语)
                                                                          作者:余震南
    东门外有这样一座小园:它隐忍在金焦北固和南山的名望之外,却精美而别致,葱郁着生生的文化气息。当踏入那一方朱门,幽静的小路边长满青翠丛竹。在丛丛簇簇中掩抑起一块大青石石刻,上面写道:“九州生气恃风雷,万马齐喑究可哀。我劝天公重抖擞,不拘一格降人才。”豁然又想起南山招隐寺中读书的太子与那焦山的三招洞。在世人悲叹文化浮华无物之时,是否世人只因没有打开那一扇通向幽径的门呢?
   “一上高城万里愁,蒹葭杨柳似汀州。溪云初起日沉阁,山雨欲来风满楼。鸟下绿芜秦苑夕,蝉鸣黄叶汉宫秋。行人莫问当年事,故国东来渭水流。”打开记载镇江历史名人的书卷,古城文化似溪云初起故国东来。而首当其冲的便为此诗作者—唐代著名诗人许浑。许诗格律工整、情思贯通、表达清晰,于唐诗中独具风格。“初霁独登赏,西楼多远风;横烟秋水上,疏雨夕阳中。高树下山鸟,平芜飞草虫;唯应待明月,千里与君同。”菲菲细雨刚停,我登上楼头,满楼都是远道而至的风。雨雾横陈水面,这太阳雨稀稀疏疏地于日落中洒落下来。山鸟从高高的树枝上飞落,原野里秋虫窜来跳去地飞蹦起来。还是让我们等待一轮明月升起,同千里以外的你一起分享那月色。如此佳句和情思中读诗人爱不释手,而在许浑《丁卯集》里佳句比比皆是。当不得不释手时我们从千年前醒来“劳歌一曲解行舟,红叶青山水急流;日暮酒醒人已远,满天风雨下西楼。”
    提起镇江的文隐似无人右于南北朝时期在南山读书的昭明太子—萧衍。南山有一楼称为“增华阁”,我的老师王川在其间留下许多壁画,莫约其间的诗文也是他设置的。便有“增华阁”的由来,说明了昭明太子编纂《文选》的真实意图:
   “式观元始,眇觌玄风,冬穴夏巢之时,茹毛饮血之世,世质民淳,斯文未作。逮乎伏羲氏之王天下也,始画八卦,造书契,以代结绳之政,由是文籍生焉。《易》曰:“观乎天文,以察时变;观乎人文以化成天下。”文之时义远矣哉!若夫椎轮为大辂之始,大辂宁有椎轮之质?增冰为积水所成,积水曾微增冰之凛,何哉?盖踵其事而增华,变其本而加厉;物既有之,文亦宜然;随时变改,难可详悉。
    尝试论之曰:《诗序》云:“诗有六义焉,一曰风,二曰赋,三曰比,四曰兴,五曰雅,六曰颂。”至于今之作者,异乎古昔,古诗之体,今则全取赋名。荀,宋表之于前,贾,马继之于末。自兹以降,源流实繁。述邑居则有“凭虚”“亡是”之作,戒畋游则有《长杨》《羽猎》之制。若其纪一事,咏一物,风云草木之兴,鱼虫禽兽之流,推而广之,不可胜载矣。”
    今笔者译:让我们看看原始社会状况,再看看远至魏晋时期的玄学之风。当人类冬天住在山洞里,夏天居于巢穴中,茹毛饮血的时代,世界处于本原状态,人民质朴无文。到了伏羲氏称霸天下的时候,人们开始画八卦、造书契以代替结绳记事。如此文字和书籍便诞生了。《易经》中说:“观察天文天象便可得知时间在变化;观察社会人文才能化成天下以治理。”文化的意义深远啊!大车因车轮而开动,而大车有哪一点像车轮呢?冰为积水生成的,积水却没有冰的寒意。这又是怎么回事呢?这是因为我们遵循事物的本质即一般规律,去利用其本质并深化之。事物如此,文章也当这样作。追随时代的改变而改变。例子不计其数。
    让我来试着议论议论,《诗序》里有如下阐述:“诗歌有六种技法:一称为‘风’,二称为‘赋’,三称为‘比’,四称为‘兴’,五称为‘雅’,六称为‘颂’。”可当今写诗的人与古人不同,而今全部都采用“赋”体。荀子和宋玉率先表现出这样的文风转变,贾谊和司马迁又继承下来。如此一来源远流长。写居家生活的有“凭虚”“亡是”之类作品;写游猎的则有《长扬》、《羽猎》之流。要写一件事或一个事物,则首先要以风云草木加以比兴,再推广到鱼虫禽兽之类,数不胜数。”
    昭明太子萧衍在镇江南山的隐居和历史文集编纂深刻影响了六朝以后中国文坛的文风,使得珍贵历史文脉得以继承和发展。
当从古代镇江文化史中走出,翻开近代一页,其灿烂又若这首《卿云歌》:“卿云烂兮,乣漫漫兮。日月光华,旦复旦兮。”卿云灿烂如霞,瑞气缭绕呈祥。日月光华照耀,日复一日地辉煌。镇江近代著名教育家爱国老人马相伯取“旦复旦兮”参与创办了中国著名学府复旦大学。他与中国著名翻译家严复一道于1905年7月24日主持了复旦公学首届入学考试。1917年复旦公学改名复旦大学。
    “九一八”事变后,马相伯积极投身抗日救亡,主张“对内团结,对外抗敌。”在著名的“七君子事件”中努力营救被捕爱国文人。七七事变后,马相伯发表了《钢铁政策》广播演说,呼吁国人誓死抗日。百岁马相伯在抗日烽火中几经流离,奄奄一息时喊出了如此壮语:“我是一只狗,只会叫,叫了一百年,还没有把中国叫醒。”
    柳诒徵为灿烂星辰中的又一颗明星。他是中国历史学家、古文献学家,著有《中国文化史》《国史要义》《中国版本概说》《劬堂读书录等》。抗战爆发后柳诒徵为保护藏书劳心劳力,在国学图书馆重新开馆后率领馆员编成《江苏省立国学图书馆现存书目》。他对民国时期江苏省镇江图书馆的建立作出过重大贡献。抗日战争后,图书馆藏书丧失殆尽。1951年在柳诒徵倡导下镇江图书馆恢复了藏书楼功能,他还将自己的1200余册藏书和200多册杂志捐了进去。
    柳诒徵还是一位出色的教育家,在南京高等师范学校时期被聘请为国文历史教授,并曾任史地部和历史主任。东南大学时期,他主讲中国文化史和中国历史,“声如洪钟,有条不紊,娓娓动听,文法理工诸科学生,不论选读与否,大都趋之若鹜。” 曾就读于南京高等师范学校文史地部的地理学家胡焕庸回忆:柳诒徵的授课“夹叙夹议,引述一段原始资料,接着一段评论,既不是枯燥无味的考证,也没有不着边际的空谈,真可是广征博引,有引人入胜之功。”
    从近代走向现代,镇江文坛又涌现出了吕叔湘那样的著名语言学家、语文教育家和翻译家。他一生从事语言教学和语言研究,涉及一般语言学、汉语研究、文字改革、语文教学、写作和文风、词典编纂、古籍整理等广泛领域,是中国近代汉语研究的拓荒者和奠基人。
    1926年从南京国立东南大学毕业后,吕叔湘在丹阳县立中学教英文文法。他以《马氏文通》为教材,开始钻研中国文法之路。1936年吕叔湘考取公费留英,先后在牛津大学人类学系、伦敦大学图书馆学科学习。抗战爆发后他未能完成3年学业便回国了。
    回国后吕叔湘曾任云南大学文史系副教授,期间发表了他的第一篇有关汉语语法的文章《中国话里的主词及其他》,从此走上了语言学研究的道路。新中国成立后,他先后担任过清华大学中文系教授、东欧交换生语文专修班主任、中国科学院语言学会会长。1978年至1985年任《中国语文》杂志主编。1985年任中国语言学会会长。1980年为美国语言学会荣誉会员。1987年获香港中文大学荣誉文学博士学位。
    “大江东去浪淘尽,千古风流人物故垒西边。”这些或生于兹或长于兹的镇江文坛巨人,默默地耕耘在这块不为人熟知的“土地”上。他们播下的种子,开出的鲜花,结出的果实,早已香满华夏。
    此刻西津渡里静悄悄的静怡茶书院与那相对的城东宝塔山公园一样,它悄悄包容着一批镇江文史学人及爱好者,一起倾听戴铭老人讲述镇江文化名人的身世。带着他所讲的那些名字我又去寻根才有了以上的故事。                                    
                                                                   2018年4月21日镇江解放纪念日
参考书目:《影响中国的镇江人》  镇江市图书馆编  江苏大学出版社出版。
         《山雨欲来风满楼》    许进  编著     中国文联出版社
         《镇江山水古韵》      熊兴邦  钟程发 主编    华夏出版社

                                         Hermit inChinking Fragrant over China
                                                                 The local origin national celebrities in the storytold by Mr.DaiMing
          To the east of MengXi square there stands a garden whose name was expelled from the country fame like JinShan, JiaoShan, BeiGuShan and NanShan. But it’s an elegant one exquisitely designed and booms with vigorous culture atmosphere. As soon as you stepped into the red gate you walk along a path sided by bamboos in cluster. In the cluster of bamboo forest hides a big hill stone chiseled with a famous Chinese poem: “The country, to make it alive we need a thunder. While thousands of talented stands without a sound. God bless me revitalization please! Let intellectuals without a frame be release(d).” Then I thought of prince ZhaoMing who spend his hermit life in Nanshan and JiaoGuang who had hidden in JiaoShan to turn down royal enrollment. When secular men grumbled over the flashy but hollow description of present literature didn’t he turn open the gate to the real path by then?
        “Stepping onto the wall in gloom. Bushes and willows like that of islets bloom. When clouds rose up over the attic, sun was setting in depart. Before mountain storm attack, fills full with wind inside. Birds escape to the greenery of garden in Qing style, cicada cries on the yellow leaves of Han Place pile. Never mention anything in the past, you passer-by. They went away with River Wei and bide us goodbye.” When we opened the pages that record the country fame with local origin the literature of this ancient city flew into our mind like the RiverWei. The first one that emerged is the poet XuHun who wrote this poem and be entitled one of the celebrities in Tang Dynasty. His poems strictly observe the classical form while have completed and clear story to tell as well as mood and idea to transfer. His collection is unique among all the Tang Poems. Up- stairs I went in the immediate rain stop. The mansion filled with wind faraway to this top. Upon the vast spread of water coated in smog, it keeps drizzling in the sunset. Birds dive down the top treeup from. Insects fly over the grassland here to come. Just wait for the up-rise of a bright moon.  To share it with you a thousand miles away in the same room.” I couldn’t stop reading with thecollection in hand for such affection and delicate description are everywhere in it. When had to depart from this thousand years old feeling I had to conclude in such another poem: “Unfasten my boat with a song to start. Maple-dotted-green-mountain with streams running fast. Wake up from the wine in the dusk. My guest was in the far gone lost. Down the mansion I went in the storm that cast.”   
     In mentioning hermit man of letters in Chinkiang no one could excelXiaoYan, the prince of NanChao Dynasty, who had lived a hermit life reading inNanShan Park. There at NanShan erected a mansion called “Attic ZengHua”. MyChinese teacher WangChuan left there many of his engrave works and the ancientChinese lines could also have been arranged by him. Among the lines the articleexplained the origin of “Attic ZengHua” which means the attic of literatureimprovement. The following are my interpretation:
         
Let’s review the primitive social status then look aback to metaphysics in Wei and JingDynasties. In time when human being lives in cave at winter and in nest duringsummer they ate their food refresh and raw. In the primitive society there hadbeen simply no letters. Later Fuhix rose up to be King, man start to drawGossip and invent books as well as contract to replace the origin way of meno—totie nodes with a rope. Such serves the origin of letters and books. The Book ofChanges indicates: “We know time passes in the observation of astronomy. We canrule and educate people in the observation of human society. The significance ofculture goes far and wide. The cart can move on wheels but how can you say thecart looks like wheels? The ice comes from water but water does not have thecold. Why? When we discover the principle of things we can make use of it andcarries it further in the application. Thing keeps running like this andarticle should proceed the same way. We have to change in accordance to time.Such examples are inexhaustible.
         Let me tryto make an argument. In the preface for Book of Songs it says: “The making ofsongs has six skills. The first one called Feng, the second one called Fu, thethird called Bi, the fourth Xing, the fifth Ya and the sixth Song. While today poets write in different way. They uniquely use Fu. Such change was firstly embodied by the work of XunZi and SongYu then followed by JiaYi and SiMaQian. It was passed down generation after generation. In description of civil life we have the work of “PingXu” and “ W angShi”;in depict of hunting we have “ChangYang”and “YuLie”. Before set down to tell a thing the poet hint with the movement of woods and grasses then widened to compare with fishes and animals. Such way is universal.
          Prince XiaoYan widely influenced the literary style of China afterthe Six Dynasty in the edit work during his hermit life at NanShan. He preserved ancient culture for inheritance and improvement.      
      As soon as we walked out of ancient Chinkiang civilization and opened thepage of its modern development it’s just like what the ancient poem describes: “The clouds of glory shining in glow. Steaming far and wide in its interwoven flow. The brilliance of sun and moon light, day after day repeats the bright.” A celebrated patriotic educator of local born Mr.MaXiangBo introduced the last sentence to name the famous Chinese study—FuDan university who involved himself in its own creation. Along with YanFu, a famous Chinese translator, MaXiangBo presided over the opening ceremony of its first entrance examination on July 24th1905 when the establishment called FuDan public study. In 1917 the study changed to its present name—FuDan university.
         After September the 18th incident MaXiangBo took active role in anti-Japanese activity. He proposed the idea of internal unit in defense of the enemy. He had tried his best to save patriotic intellectuals in the Incidence of Seven Gentlemen. After July the 7th Incidence MaXiangBo declared his Steel and Iron Policy through radio broadcast calling people of China determined to fight against the Japanese invasion. He had to flee to many places in the smoke and fire of the war and mustered up to cry in his last breath: “I am a dog. What I can do is only to bark. I barked for a century but still failed to call up China.”
         Mr. LiuYiZhi emerges as another shining star in the modern history of Chinkiang. He is a historian and a scholar on ancient books, who has publication to his own credit. Among them are The History of Chinese Culture, The National History, A Summary on Chinese Version, Reading in Hard labor etc. After the outbreak of Anti-Japanese warLiuYiZhi works hard to preserve his book collections. He led his staff in the edition and completion of Index for State Owned Library at Provincial Level and made great tribute to the establishment of Chinkiang Library in Republic of China. During the anti-Japanese war the library book store was emptied. Under the proposal ofLiuYiZhi the book store of Chinkiang Library was recovered in 1951, for which he contributed 1,200 books and 200 magazines in his own keep to the library.      
     Liu also function as an expert educator who had been hired as professor of Chinese history in the time when Southeast University was called NanJiang Normal Academy. He had worked as director of geography and history department there. LiuYiZhi taught Chinese Culture and Chinese history in the phase of Southeast University. One described his way of lecturing as “He speaks asloud as bell. He proceeds steadily and movingly. Students of arts and science all prefer his lesson no matter the lesson accredit to his/her own curriculums.”Mr. HuHuanYong who had studied in arts, history and geography department of NanJing Normal Academy recalled: Teacher Liu made argument during his narration. Firstly he applied some original sources then made comments on them. He never lost himself in tasteless textual research nor indulged in boundless gossip. He held people’s attention by quotes many and proves full.”              
        When history developed into contemporary another giant literary headappeared on the stage of China and he’s also a Chinkiangnese. The man is LvShuXiang—acelebrated linguists, professor of Chinese and translator. All his life wasdevoted to the teaching and studying of languages concerning wide area in linguisticsin general, Chinese study, language reform, writing and its style, compositionof dictionaries, collation of ancient books etc. For the above work he wasentitled to be pioneer and cornerstone layer of modern Chinese study.
          LvShuXiang devoted himself to the teachingof English grammar upon his graduation from State Southeast University in 1926.He initiated his Chinese grammar study based on the book of MaShiWenTong—the firstsystematic grammar book of Chinese. In 1936 LvShuXiang passed the examinationfor a chance to study in England at public expense. Then he entered theanthropologist department of Oxford University and later studied science in thelibrary of London University. Lv couldn’t complete his 3 years curriculum andreturned after the outbreak of anti-Japanese war.
          After his return LvShuXiang had worked as associate professor in arts and history department of YunNan University during which the professor published his first Chinese grammar study named The Subject Term in Chinese Language and Others, thus set off on his way of linguistic study. After the liberation of China, LvShuXiang had worked successively as professor in Chinese Department of QiangHua University, director of Chinese class for exchange students and president of linguistic learning in Chinese Academy of Science. He had functioned as editor-in-chief for the magazine The Study of Chinese Language from 1978 to 1985, as president of Chinese Language Learning in 1985 and the honorable member of American Language Learning in 1980. In the year 1987 Lv won the title of honorable doctor in arts at Chinese University of HongKong.   
         As a famous Ci, a literature form in China, in Song Dynasty goes: “With the water of YangZi River flows east, how many heroes in history were washed away?” All of the above mentioned local born or local grow literary heads silently farmed on this “unknown land”. The seeds they spread broke the earth then the plants were in bloom and born fruits, the fragrance of which had long before scented China.
       This moment in compare to BaoTaShan Park to the east of MengXi square a group of scholar and fan for local history and culture seat themselves quietly in JingYi Tea House and Reading Room listening attentively to an old man, Mr. DaiMing, in his recount of those figures. With those names he told I went further to trace their stories thus created the above article.
                                                                                                               Translation completed on 2018/4/23—the World Reading Day.


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